The measures taken by the European Central Bank are often criticized in Germany. There is talk of dispossessing savers, the inadmissible mixing of monetary and fiscal policy, and a backdoor path to a transfer union. Some also charge that the ECB’s monetary policy is ineffective, because inflation persistently remains below the targeted level of just under 2 percent.
But it is also understandable that ECB President Mario Draghi is offering energetic counterarguments. The rate of inflation, he says, would be even lower without his “unconventional monetary policy.” And, of course, Mr. Draghi stresses that the ECB has by no means exhausted its resources.
The key question now is whether the ECB will truly come closer to its goal with additional rate cuts and bond purchases. In fact, there are growing indications that its monetary policy could even have counterproductive effects when it comes to stimulating growth and inflation. There are several reasons for this.
First, negative deposit rates harm the banking system. On balance, they weaken the activity of banks and curtail the creation of credit. Tighter regulation takes things one step further. For the ECB, this signifies a weakening of precisely the sector that is responsible for translating monetary stimuli in the real economy. Bank lending will remain too weak to stimulate inflation to a significant extent or provide an impetus for growth.